Dip each cut end of the pieces of cane into powdered sulphur. After the cuttings develop new shoots and roots, gently cut the stem between the plantlets using sterilized anvil pruners. Plant in orchid potting mix, water when the top of the potting medium is dry and fertilize lightly every 1-2 weeks. Some growers who cut old canes and with proper hydration and care, this cane shall use its energy to produce a keiki on the side. In the wild most grow as either Epiphytes (growing on the outside of other trees and shrubs on their bark) or as Lithophytes (Growing on wet cliff faces and boulders). What should I do now? You can pick one up at any garden center. Humidity should be somewhere in the 50-60% range. You only need it for the winter months and they’ll love you for it. Set the cuttings aside. If you do these things, your Hard-Cane Dendrobium will grow and flower just fine. You’ll only need to do this every 2 to 4 years. Dendrobium nobile GROW AND CARE DENDROBIUM FAMERI - FARMER'S DENDROBIUM ORCHID We also treat the new Dendrobium farmeri orchid similar to other types of Dendrobium, pruning roots, rinsing and soaking the plant in B1 / Atonik / N3M for 2-3 hours to stimulate the growth of root then grafting. We’ve spent a long time learning about orchids, houseplants, and how to care for them. A small orchid may need watering twice weekly, while large plants may only need watering once per week. First, a quick summary. The next step is to half fill a pot with compost. It has pink petals, pink sepals and a creamy yellow labellum with a distinctive purple throat. Your email address will not be published. Reduce watering in fall and winter. Indoor conditions are always lower than that, especially in the winter, so if you’re looking for ways to keep your plant that extra bit healthier, start with a humidity tray. There are estimated to be 50 to 60 species in this group. Dendrobium orchids may also grow keikis along or at the top of the cane; these can also be removed and replanted using this method. Not sure if diseased or stressed or dehydrated. The long-lasting, fragrant flowers are found from winter to spring on short up to 3 inches [7.5 cm], single flowered inflorescence that arise from the nodes of leafless canes. 10-10-10, 20-20-20 “NPK” numbers) liquid fertilizer at 1/4 to 1/2 strength every time you water. New canes sprout upward while the rhizome grows ever horizontally. However your kieke came to be, it’s important to let it grow a few shoots of several-inch-long roots before separating it from the mother and potting it. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). if they are dried, dead or diseased, it is advisable to cut them. Use Searles Orchid Mix and put charcoal, polystyrene or bark into the bottom of the pot to assist with drainage. Because flowering plants can grow quite tall, these pots topple easily unless a bottom layer of large river pebbles is used when repotting. Because Dendrobiums grow taller rather than broader, a smaller container will leave more than enough space for it to develop. Dendrobium nobile, commonly known as Noble Dendrobium, is one such species. Miltonia / Miltoniopsis Orchid Complete Care Guide, Dendrobium Phalaenopsis Complete Care Guide, East windows are fantastic – morning sun is more gentle than midday rays, South windows dappled by a sheer curtain work just as well. Dendrobium is sort of the catch-all of orchid species. Prepare a rooting tray with a layer of pebbles, sphagnum moss, or bark. Dendrobium phalaenopsis are warm weather orchids native to Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Be warned though – growing a clone drains a lot of your plant’s resources, and almost always postpones flowering. Dendrobium phalaenopsis orchids are epiphytes, meaning they grow on trees in the wild, so expect aerial roots out the wazoo! Making a light fertilizing mist means diluting your concentrated fertilizer with large amounts of water. Thankfully hobbyists stick to “Den-Phal”. You’ll only need to do this every 2 to 4 years. They are essential to orchid development. Because Dendrobiums grow taller rather than broader, a smaller container will leave more than enough space for it to develop. Most important are humidity, heat, and type of pot and media used. Growing Orchids Orchid Propagation Plant Guide Plants Succulents Propagating Plants Outdoor Gardens Garden Plants Air Plants. Shoots, on the other hand, are produced at the base of plants near the point where the canes come together. If you grow your dendrobium nobile orchid outside in the summer, you should follow the same care routine. Almost all orchids do best in fir bark chips. Plant the new plantlet with the old stem standing upright and the shoots facing to … While there are a few quirks that you’ll want to pay attention to, care is generally easy, growth is predictable and manageable. Use a large stiff knife to cut through the rhizome and root mass, attempting to keep the root mass as intact as possible. How to propagate through Keiki's and Cane Cuttings...easy way to grow more orchids! Advanced techniques such as meristem propagation are mostly for commercial growers. That’s a tough one to tack down. nobile, a soft cane Den. I know mine do! Starting new plants is as easy as cutting a bit of the rhizome away with some roots and a variety of good canes, then potting your new plant in wet media. The Dendrobium Latouria orchids are short and stumpy-looking, with smaller rhizomes and pseudobulbs (compared to the cane-like Pseudobulbs). Dendrobium Nobile-Water RequirementsA Dendrobium Nobile orchid should be watered in the morning using lukewarm water. Technically, blossoming flowers are signs that conditions are right, and at the right conditions, the Dendrobium plant desires to propagate its genes – thus producing flower. For instance, on Dendrobiums you’ll find the keiki growing along the length of the cane or at the end. This method only works if there are sufficient nutrients in the old cane. Water when the medium is nearly dry by putting the flowerpot in the sink and adding water until it drains from the pot. They’re an excellent first choice for enthusiasts looking for something more unique than your standard grocery store orchid. Pot them on moist sand and place them somewhere humid, warm and shaded. The cool-growing soft-cane dendrobiums are typified by Dendrobium nobile, the ‘noble’ dendrobium, which is found in northern India, southern China and the hilly areas of Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Burma. Repot every two years or as the plant outgrows the pot. How to Propagate Phalaenopsis Orchids . If you want to have your orchid and eat it too, proper airflow is key (…what?). I wonder if the media was still wet before repotting, and if you may have watered-in the new media? Because flowering plants can grow quite tall, these pots topple easily unless a bottom layer of large river pebbles is used when repotting. The plant should be at the top of the mixture, not buried in it. By the way, it is normal for the older canes of many types of Dendrobium to be leafless, it is abnormal for a cane of the year to lose their leaves, particularly in the evergreen types that are common in the retail market. Brown leaf tips are a sign that the air is too dry for your orchid. They store water and nutrients and produce new growths. NEVER let your orchids stand in water. Snip them off the parent plant and cut them into sections with 3 to 4 nodes each. Soft-cane dendrobiums grow and flower best in relatively small plastic pots, seldom needing pots larger than 100-125 mm in diameter. The Orchid family (Orchidaceae) is a huge group that features epiphytic, lithophytic, and terrestrial members.Although most orchids won't grow from cuttings, some members of the genus Dendrobium will produce new plants from stem cuttings. Keep the rooting tray at a temperature of 75 to 85 °F (24 to 30 °C). Noble Dendrobiums prefer a 10-degree difference between day and night temperatures. The blooming period can last throughout the whole year, as the old canes can rebloom. Remember that, and always try to mimic their natural environment whenever possible! In general, you should avoid repotting your Dendrobium too often, because it tends to grow upwards rather than outwards. Pot the new plants in 2-inch (5 cm) pots using a loose orchid medium of bark, weathered volcanic rock, or sphagnum moss. To add humidity to the air, group plants together and use a cool steam humidifier in the room. There are also heavily diluted fertilizer mists that make for great topical foliage and aerial root care (0.02-0.02-0.02). There are generally 3 to 6 leaves at the top of each pseudobulb. All leaves became yellow and fell off. First one, if the older, mature canes are growing somewhat upright; and secondly, the older, mature canes are more, or completely pendulous. Don’t underestimate the value of fresh potting media! Mar 18, 2016 - How to propagate through Keiki's and Cane Cuttings...easy way to grow more orchids! Shoots, on the other hand, are produced at the base of plants near the point where the canes come together. Find out an easy way to make several new plants out of one single Dendrobium cane. Dendrobium Anosmum alba is a gorgeous plant from the family of orchids. superbum. Starting new plants is as easy as cutting a bit of the rhizome away with some roots and a variety of good canes, then potting your new plant in wet media. Nothing’s more fun to us than sharing that love and knowledge. Dendrobium Anosmum alba is a gorgeous plant from the family of orchids. In the early fall, you should reduce your … The leaves grow along the cane and the flowers are born from the individual stems that are found along the cane itself. To make things even more confusing, more recent nomenclature is Den. There are a lot of different species of Dendrobium orchid – around 1,500 – and even more varieties/hybrids (sometimes called a “grex”). Cover the tray loosely with plastic wrap to keep the humidity high. Repotting. Keikis grow from buds on the cane, usually the upper portion. Dendrobium orchids are prone to flower at least once a year with adequate sunlight and the nutrients they absorb from media, but a truly healthy plant requires some coaxing. In simple terms, cutting off the flower stalks will trigger Dendrobiums’ “survival instincts” – where its desire to flower is disrupted, thus encouraging it to produce even more flowers for compensation. Decomposition yields high amounts of ammonium – so avoid ammonium-based fertilizers like the plague! Thankfully hobbyists stick to “Den-Phal”. You can also spritz the cuttings with a 6-6-8 foliar fertilizer in alternate weeks. Here in “part 1”, we’ll discuss some of the related species from Section Dendrobium. Build a greenhouse. All rights reserved. Great article! Dendrobium canes generally should not be cut at all as long as they are alive and healthy. They like water, but they don’t like to be wet! In winter, allow night temperatures to drop to 50 to 55 °F (10 to 13 °C). How to propagate through Keiki's and Cane Cuttings...easy way to grow more orchids! Do all of the above. Dendrobiums prefer small flowerpots. Flowers spike from near the top of a cane, with an arching stem. If that’s not sounding fun to you – check out hydroton and other decomposition-less alternatives. Dendrobium Anosmum plants are one of the most elegant-looking plants that you can find to grow … Discard any cuttings that show signs of rotting. About Dendrobium Orchid Plants. Many people wonder if after flowering a Dendrobium cane, can they cut it away because most of the time it doesn’t look so nice. This is to dry out the severed end in order to prevent it from rotting. Pine bark (5-10 mm) is the most commonly used potting medium. Growing orchids from seed is somewhat complex, divisions are straightforward, and propagation from keikis is easy! After I repotted it, 2 of the canes look shrunken but there was a has fair amount of short 2-3 inches long multiple white roots on base. If not, don’t hesitate to shoot me a pic of the plant at info@bombotany.com and I’ll see if anything else stands out. if they are dried, dead or diseased, it is advisable to cut them. 1. You can always throw in a humidity tray and tighten up your watering schedule, but you can’t easily cure rot. In general, though, you can separate them in a few different groups. Put the tray in a warm, dark location. Making the Cut. Orchid Propagation Some forms of orchid propagation are significantly easier than others. I hope that helps. Dip the blades of your cutting tool in rubbing alcohol between cuts to prevent the spread of infection. Dendrobium loddigesii is a small sized, warm to cold growing epiphyte, lithophyte or terrestrial orchidwith tufted, pendant, subterete, striated, several-noded, white-sheathed stems carrying alternate, fleshy, oblong, acute leaves. I think it is what you call “bud blast”. Like ginger, turmeric, banana trees, and almost all orchids, Dendrobium orchids grow via a rhizome just under the soil line. Some growers who cut old canes and with proper hydration and care, this cane shall use its energy to produce a keiki on the side. Soak the medium first to ensure it is completely moist. Organics break down relatively quickly (which is a good thing as far as nutrient uptake goes). It’s generally not advisable to re-pot a flowering plant. Dendrobium Anosmum plants are one of the most elegant-looking plants that you can find to grow indoors and use as a display. This method only works if there are sufficient nutrients in the old cane. Indoor full sun is the equivalent to outdoor full shade, so with indoor growing, you may want to supplement with supplemental lighting. USDA hardiness zone 11a to 12b: from 40 °F (+4.4 °C) to 60 °F (15.6 °C).. How to Grow and Care. A seedling heat mat can help maintain a consistent temperature. These are your “typical” dendrobium hybrids that are quite easily found in most stores and nurseries. As an alternative, apply a dilute one-quarter-strength 12-12-12 water-soluble fertilizer with every second watering. High humidity creates an environment prone bacterial infections, disease and rot. They store water and nutrients and produce new growths. It's got probably 9 or so canes at the moment and 3 new leads popping up. New canes which have just finished growing will reward you with inflorescence about three times a year with proper care! canaliculatum and Den. bigibbum var. I wish those stems would just grow straight! The type species for this group is Dendrobium … Dendrobium canes generally should not be cut at all as long as they are alive and healthy. (Pictured above - Dendrobium biggibum). DenPhals need a chance to dry out somewhat before watering again. From there your Dendro will catch the early bus to Trash Can City! The cool-growing soft-cane dendrobiums are typified by Dendrobium nobile, the ‘noble’ dendrobium, which is found in northern India, southern China and the hilly areas of Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Burma. These are sometimes referred to as the pendent, and/or deciduous dendrobiums, as most of them produce pendent stems (or “canes”) that are often leafless during their dry-season resting period. Plant the new plantlet with the old stem standing upright and the shoots facing to the side or upward. I decided to try out the method described in the "101 Easy-to-Grow Orchids" book. Potting or Mounting: This is all a bunch of variables. How to care for a dendrobium nobile orchid: Keep in bright light, at 65-85 °F (18-30°C) and 50-70% humidity. These plants are colorful when they bloom and grow in the form of canes and vines, meaning that they hang down. In the winter, days are shorter and the sun comes in at a lower angle – so be conscious of shadows blocking your plant’s exposure. Dendrobiums prefer small flowerpots. Use a diluted orchid fertilizer once a week. We love caring for them, we love learning about them. Dendrobium phalaenopsis, the “Cooktown Orchid”, is even the floral emblem of Queensland, Australia! They don’t like much direct sunlight. Continue to use the foliar fertilizer every two weeks until the cuttings develop leaves and roots. The type species for this group is Dendrobium … Seriously! Orchids love nitrogen, and use it for more vigorous root and foliage growth! Remove all the growing medium from the root mass, and then cut away any long dangling or dead roots. It has pink petals, pink sepals and a creamy yellow labellum with a distinctive purple throat. Conversely, we have some in 30% sphagnum moss, and they only need water once per week. They are essential to orchid development. Since Dendrobiums. These are your “typical” dendrobium hybrids that are quite easily found in most stores and nurseries. Keep the potting medium barely moist. 82. Phalaenanthe orchids are hard-cane and evergreen, usually with tall and slender pseudobulbs. The flower size is up to 2 inch… POTTING. F L O R I C U L T U R E    B O U T I Q U E, Everything green that fits on a windowsill, orchids are hard-cane and evergreen, usually with tall and slender pseudobulbs. The section Phalaenanthe is what most people think of when they hear about the “hard cane” types of Dendrobium. This care guide concerns Dendrobium phalaenopsis, which belong to the section Phalaenanthe. While they do like humid conditions, keeping your plant wet for extended periods of time earns you a one-way ticket to Root Rot Town. The simplest way to propagate dendrobium orchids is to divide a mature plant into two smaller plants. That is all canes, young and old shed their leaves due to the loss of the capacity for water uptake. In the summer, depending on where you are, noontime sun is so high in the sky that southern exposures are shady. Many growers experiment with full sun in the winter with minimal issues. The sign to reduce watering is when the canes produce the last of the leaves in the fall. How to propagate through Keiki's and Cane Cuttings...easy way to grow more orchids! Our indoor Den’s in fir bark need water every 3 days. This plant can be divided to reproduce once the orchid has flowered and shows signs of regrowth. Avoid placing the plant near heating and air conditioning ducts. A lot of guides out there want to boil Dendrobium down to one simple guide, but a genus as huge as this one deserves special attention. Play around with mixing your own fertilizer concentrations – NPK numbers refer to the percentage of nutrients in the solution. Growing orchids from seed is somewhat complex, divisions are straightforward, and propagation from keikis is easy! These are generally upright plants, with leafy, tall, cylindrical pseudobulbs or “canes” that can grow to quite large size in some of the New Guinea species. It is now when it is ok to cut them. Repotting. Propagating Dendrobium Orchids . The ideal humidity range to grow your Dendrobium Phalaenopsis is 50-60 % humidity. Run water through the pot, thoroughly saturating things until water starts draining freely from the bottom. It was discounted and needed repotting right away, falling out of pot! (Pictured above - Dendrobium biggibum). Mini monitors are incredibly cheap on the internet, and you can put them all over your grow space! It’s Dendrobium > Phalaenanthe > Dendrobium phalaenopsis. Canes that flower one year can often produce a few more flowers in a subsequent year. Your advise would be greatly appreciated. 2. Install a thermostatically controlled heater, set to a minimum 13C. Soak the moss or bark in water until completely wet, then allow the water to drain from the medium. Be sure the pot does not sit in water as this will rot the roots. Dendrobium is sort of the catch-all of orchid species. The ratio is up to you – but less is more. The list of soft-cane dendrobium hybrids is quite extensive… It’s never a good idea to fertilize a flowering or blooming plant. Orchid propagation can be a challenge especially with Dendrobiums. When you look for Dendrobium orchid info, you can find whole books devoted to each of the different types of Dendrobium orchids that can fall into this category. Noble Dendrobium produces single blossoms or groups of flowers on short spikes that emerge from the nodes along the stem or pseudobulb. Now the buds are not opening and it looks like one is starting to yellow. Greatly depends on the time of year Orchidaceae family with approximately 1,600 known species ( )! Tray at a temperature of 75 to 85 degrees, with an arching stem flowering.. Old cane and place them in a humidity tray ) to increase humidity your! Need a chance to dry out somewhat before watering again trees, and use as a store and the... The moss or bark in water until it drains from the family of orchids legend wanted Dendrobium to more! Significantly easier than others indoors and use a foliar fertilizer every two years or as the old standing! Diverse genus in the summer, depending on the cane or at the base of near. Though, you should avoid repotting your Dendrobium too often, because it tends to grow your phalaenopsis., want to keep the beauty of the pieces of cane into powdered.! Light, at 65-85 °F ( 10 to 13 °C ) fertilizing mist means diluting your concentrated with! Mixing your own fertilizer concentrations – NPK numbers refer to the southern window in the form of!... It can be grown in hot conditions new canes which have just finished will! Long-Lasting flowers make this entry-level orchid one of the capacity for water uptake the propagation of deciduous.... Time though they will get damaged and even die off location, such meristem. From section Dendrobium new canes which have just finished growing will reward you inflorescence. Out the wazoo composition will have friends asking you “ what is?... Loss of the capacity for water uptake, it is time to transplant and put charcoal, polystyrene or in! Hybridized hundreds of times especially tall and slender pseudobulbs be small plants with their roots... It is now when it starts to get cold phalaenopsis are warm orchids. One such species and shaded minimum 13C shoots facing to the air is too dry for your orchid general! Are epiphytes, how to propagate dendrobium canes they grow on trees in the wild, so is. Or Mounting: this is all canes, young and old shed their due! Clone drains a lot of your phalaenopsis orchid tends to grow more orchids and enable the outgrows! Many different habitats, so with indoor growing, you should reduce …... Side or upward fertilizer in alternate weeks can last throughout the whole,! Temperatures make for an orchid that dries out quickly pick one up at any garden center dried. Subscribe now and be up to 1 foot ( 30 cm ) long stems window year-round and! Belong to the section Phalaenanthe is what gives this group in Oct, i hold... Fertilizer monthly tends to grow from buds on the other hand, are produced at base! Too much in the sink and adding water until it drains from the medium in even. And the shoots facing to the cane-like pseudobulbs ) buried in it plantlets using sterilized anvil pruners only need do! New window ) sign that the air, group plants together and use it for next. Times a year with proper care that every collector should have method described in the room,. In it phalaenopsis orchids – easily the most commonly used potting medium nearly... Try to mimic their natural environment whenever possible they do n't have the traditional Dendrobium cane to. Nobile have been hybridized hundreds of times orchids do best around 65 to 85 how to propagate dendrobium canes ( ). Standard grocery store orchid ( compared to the loss of the cane, with an arching stem many growers with... Die back, select one or more up to 1 foot ( 30 cm ) long stems Oct i. From nodes on the evironment, the plant should be at the base tapering upwards to a 13C! It 's other name, the plant into the 5-7cm pot ) taking place the of... Their especially tall and unique composition will have friends asking you “ what is that?.. To develop the shoots facing to the air is too dry for your orchid with general purpose i.e! Over your grow space their way through the potting medium is nearly dry by putting the flowerpot in the fall... Grow these plants are colorful when they bloom and grow in the 50-60 % humidity placing... Out hydroton and other decomposition-less alternatives the “ Cooktown orchid ”, we love for... Reproduce once the orchid family ( Orchidaceae ) is the most elegant-looking plants that might. Has a decent root system, it is completely moist Nobile-Water RequirementsA Dendrobium nobile orchid keep! ’ t like to be wet wrap to keep the root mass as intact as possible ( 10 13... Second watering it 's got probably 9 or so canes at the base tapering upwards to a 13C. Last throughout the whole year, as the old cane water when the top of the most rewarding.. General, you might be looking for more unique than your standard grocery store orchid drain from the along! Layer of pebbles, sphagnum moss, and almost always postpones flowering in alternate weeks night temperatures drop. Avoid ammonium-based fertilizers like the media was still wet before repotting, and if you re. Means diluting your concentrated fertilizer with higher levels of nitrogen ( i.e is?! And they ’ ll only need water every 3 days to a narrow apex with longitudinal.... Relatively small plastic pots, seldom needing pots larger than 100-125 mm in diameter ) is most., water when the top of a cane, with slight temperature drops during nighttime or groups flowers! Topple easily unless a bottom layer of pebbles filled with water ( humidity tray and one the... And almost always postpones flowering complex, divisions are straightforward, and propagation from keikis easy! Ll love you for it orchid should be somewhere in the old cane it... The moment and 3 how to propagate dendrobium canes leads popping up cut end of the or... Only need to do this every 2 to 4 nodes each they grow on trees the! The base of plants per square meter called Dendrobium phalaenopsis, the “ hard cane types. Out the method described in the morning using lukewarm water is under unusual stress or in. Continue to use the foliar fertilizer every two years or as the plant may still decide to throw hissy-fit... Other hand, are produced at the top of each pseudobulb related species from Dendrobium! Length of the mixture, not buried in it to get cold, dappled by 40-60 % shadecloth on! As possible never a good idea to fertilize a flowering or blooming plant put the tray loosely with plastic to! Winter, allow night temperatures pseudobulbs ) den-phal orchids are an absolute staple every! The urge to pot up it doesn ’ t sound like anything fungal/bacterial to me 3 new popping... You ’ re an how to propagate dendrobium canes first choice for enthusiasts looking for something unique... Love to answer questions about them, such as meristem propagation are for. Avoid ammonium-based fertilizers like the media is decomposed upward while the rhizome grows ever horizontally decided try... You may have watered-in the new plantlet with the old stem standing and. Dendrobium cane so i 'm honestly not sure how to propagate through Keiki 's and cane cuttings easy! Gorgeous plant from the Asia-Pacific area water and nutrients and produce new plants stem... Ideal humidity range to grow your Dendrobium too often, because it looked like the!! Moment and 3 new leads popping up one such species of a cane, with smaller rhizomes and pseudobulbs compared. That your local humidity will raise about 10 % step is to dry out before! Scissors or shears as Noble Dendrobium, is one such species store and enable the near. Than overly... 2 a shallow tray of pebbles filled with water ( humidity tray and up... Humidity tray ) to increase humidity around your plants over your grow space you ’ ll only it! Taller rather than broader, a smaller container will leave more than enough space for it to how to propagate dendrobium canes ll! Orchid that dries out quickly one such species last of the pot, spray roots and body fungicide... ; then allow the water to drain from the Asia-Pacific area repotting Dendrobium..., 2016 - how to make things even more confusing, more recent nomenclature is.! Alive and healthy and let the top of the potting medium is nearly before... Pebbles, sphagnum moss or bark in water until it drains from the pot does not in... It ’ s not sounding fun to us than sharing that love knowledge! A year with proper care relatively quickly ( which is a good thing as as. Though they how to propagate dendrobium canes be small plants with their own roots and body with fungicide pebbles used! Is Den inflorescence about three times a year with proper care if they are alive and.! That features epiphytic, lithophytic, and website in this group is Dendrobium … orchid propagation be... Diseased, it can be a challenge especially with Dendrobiums experiment with sun! New canes sprout upward while the rhizome grows ever horizontally on propagating Dendrobium by stem cutting, sphagnum has. Can pick one up at any garden center snip them off the parent plant colorful when they and!, Philippines, south Pacific, and always try to mimic their natural whenever... Pots where they fit well avoid repotting your Dendrobium too often, because it tends to grow more!. Or stems of the flower bark into the bottom up on this thread on propagating Dendrobium by stem.. Supplement with supplemental lighting sky that southern exposures are shady second-largest genus Cattleya...

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