F. H. BROWN, who was massacred by the Indians near Fort Phil, Kearny, was the son of MATTHEW BROWN, Esq., of Toledo, Ohio. University of Oklahoma Press; 1st edition (March 23, 2017). He had a distinguished Civil War record as a combat officer, but he had been court-martialed for drunkenness and abuse of civilians and was known as a bigamist. Phillips accomplished the 236-mile ride to Fort Laramie in four days. The decoy trick had worked on December 6 and they decided to try it again, this time with a force adequate to destroy any group of soldiers sent to chase them. [7]:169–170, Red Cloud and other Indian leaders, encouraged by their successes, decided to undertake a large military operation against Fort Kearny before winter snows forced them to break up their large village on the Tongue River and disperse. Monnett, John H. Eyewitness to the Fetterman Fight: Indian Views. The author was the wife of Lt. Grummond that was killed in the Fetterman massacre and she speaks at length about her arrival at the Fort, the times leading up to the massacre and what happened after. A few of the cavalry were with Fetterman, but Grummond and most of the cavalry apparently were a mile ahead of the infantry, near the flat along Peno Creek and possibly chasing other decoys. Wood-cutting detachment rescue party from Fort Phil Kearny, Dakota Territory, December 21, 1866, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Captain William J. Fetterman†, commanding, Captain William J. Fetterman†, 18th Infantry, commanding. Lieutenant Grummond's wife, in her memoirs, confirmed Carrington's statement. Although outnumbered, the soldiers were armed with newly supplied breech-loading Springfield Model 1866 rifles and Lever Action Henry rifles, and had a … The Lakota alliance emerged victorious and the remaining US forces withdrew from the area. The half-man rode on his pony in a crazed manner four times between the warriors gathered on the butte and Lodge Trail Ridge, each time gathering more "soldiers" into his hands in a prophetic manner. The Indians in the valley slowly dispersed and disappeared. They braved temperatures as low as -38°F (-39°C) during the journey to Fort Laramie. case, Fort Phil Kearny. The staff member used the model to explain the location of the fort… He advanced along a narrow ridge leading to a flat area along Peno Creek. A blizzard began on December 22, and Phillips rode through a foot of snow and below-zero temperatures. Western with James Coburn, Bud Spencer and Telly Savalas. “Fetterman Massacre,” Annals of Wyoming 9 (October 1932): 714-718. She wrote My Army Life and the Fort Phil Kearney Massacre forty years after the fort was abandoned. Original TV Movie Still. Carrington sent Captain Powell, his most cautious officer, out of the fort to relieve the wood train with a cavalry company and mounted infantry. [7]:183, Historians do not believe that Indian casualties approached the higher estimates. "Under no circumstances" was the relief party to "pursue over the ridge, that is Lodge Trail Ridge". Almost 90 soldiers were detailed to guard the wagon train. In 1868, Fort Phil Kearny was abandoned, and in November of that year, Red Cloud signed a peace agreement with the US. Title: He suggests that Carrington and Fetterman planned to take the offensive against the Indians attacking the wood train and that Fetterman took the Lodge Trail Ridge to gain a position to attack the Indians from the rear. Are we then to give up their sacred graves to be plowed for corn? [23][24] In his report to his superiors, Carrington listed what was discovered at the battlefield the next day: eyes torn out and laid on rocks, noses and ears cut off, teeth chopped out, brains taken out and placed on rocks, hands and feet cut off, and private parts severed. An investigation absolved him of blame, but the report was not made public. The dead soldiers had been stripped naked and mutilated. [7]:193–194, Carrington and a detail of 80 men marched cautiously out of Fort Kearny on December 22 as the blizzard was approaching and gathered the remaining bodies of those killed. About three times as many Lakota participated in the battle as did Cheyenne and Arapaho. One-half of the 60-soldier escort suffered frostbite. [5] By 1860, these traditional enemies of the Crow had taken control of their hunting grounds west of Powder River. December 21 marks the 145th anniversary of the Fetterman Massacre, which took place near Fort Phil Kearny, in present-day Wyoming. It is a necessary addition to other material on Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Bozeman Trail." “Hear ye, Dakotas!” he exclaimed. The Lakota, the Cheyenne, and the Arapaho accepted it as such. On December 19, the Indians attacked another wood train. View production, box office, & company info. All 81 men under the command of Captain William J. Fetterman were then killed by the Native American warriors. Grummond eventually was seen approaching with seven Indians in hot pursuit, though he managed to reach safety with Carrington and Fetterman. The U.S. military mission was intended to protect travelers on the Bozeman Trail. The investigation noted that 12 companies of soldiers were stationed at Fort Laramie in a region at peace, while at Fort Kearny Carrington had only five companies in a region at war. Depicts Richard Egan and Don Taylor in a scene from the made for TV movie "Massacre at Fort Phile Kearny". "[11] Many other officers shared Fetterman's feelings. I was able to glean a lot of information about the happenings at the Fort as well as what travel was like for the women who The Fetterman Massacre was a significant battle during Red Cloud's War on December 21, 1866, between soldiers of the U.S. Army based at Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming, and the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians. Get a sneak peek of the new version of this page. According to Calitri, historians believe evidence conflicts as to whether Carrington gave his order. The Fetterman Massacre Called a massacre at the time, the December 1866 clash near Fort Phil Kearny was, in fact, a military triumph by the Plains Indians and the Army's greatest blunder in the West until the Battle of the Little Bighorn 10 years later. Lieutenant Bisbee, commanding the wagon train, sensibly took cover instead of pursuing the bait.[7]:150–156. The buildings at Fort Philip Kearny were afterward burned by Cheyenne warrior, Little Wolf. On December 20, Carrington turned down Fetterman and Captain Brown's proposal that they lead 50 civilian employees in a raid on the Lakota village on the Tongue River, about 50 miles distant. [14] On leaving the fort, however, Fetterman took the Lodge Ridge Trail northward rather than the trail northwest toward the pinery where the wagon train was. Carrington sent Phillips and another messenger, Philip Bailey, out that evening on the best remaining horses. Ten Eyck was accused of cowardice and drunkenness and was permitted to retire from the army. The actor Robert Fuller played the role of Fetterman in the episode, "Massacre at Fort Phil Kearny", which aired on October 26, 1966, on NBC's anthology television series, Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre. On December 21, 1866, eighty men under the command of Captain William Fetterman were surrounded and killed by an estimated force of over 1000 Sioux warriors in what would known as the Fetterman Massacre. They promised to protect the wayfarers. Accessed via Internet Archive on August 30, 2015. [28] Years later, Red Cloud remembered the names of 11 Oglala who had been killed in the battle. About 10 am, Carrington dispatched a wagon train to the "pinery" – about 5 miles northwest and the nearest source of construction timber and firewood for Fort Kearny. In 1867, the army designated a new outpost in the Dakota Territory as "Fort Fetterman" in honor of the slain officer. The Toledo Blade says: "FREDERICK HALLAM BROWN was aged about 33 years. You have heard the sound of the white soldier’s ax upon the Little Piney. He saw no Indians during his ride. Carrington spent the rest of his life attempting to repair his tarnished reputation as a soldier.[7]:217–218. [2] The Lakota and their allies were operating without the consent of the Crow. Instead of turning west to where the wagon train was under attack, he advanced northward up Lodge Trail Ridge, perhaps planning to circle east toward the wagon train, perhaps drawn by the Indian decoys, who mooned him. [3], The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 had this territory designated as Crow land. He had accompanied an escort who guarded a wagon train gathering firewood and construction timber for Fort Kearny. Red Cloud was born in 1821 into the Oglala tribe - one of seven Lakota tribes, known by non-Natives as the… Grummond probably was killed at this point, after he had personally decapitated at least one warrior with his saber before being overwhelmed by the others. That afternoon, wagons were sent to bring the bodies back to Fort Kearny. Crazy Horse was put in charge of the attack, while the older men acted as councilors. Less than an hour later, Carrington's pickets on Pilot Hill signaled by flag that the wagon train was under attack. Carrington told Fetterman to proceed west with a company of cavalry and a squad of mounted infantry to relieve the wood train. Want to share IMDb's rating on your own site? [7]:209–210, Lurid newspaper stories blamed Carrington for the Fetterman disaster. — Roundup Magazine After the loss of her first husband Frances went on to marry Colonel Henry B. Carrington. They dispatched the 18th Infantry of the U.S. Army to Fort Phil Kearny, led by Colonel Henry B. Carrington. At the top of the ridge, in violation of orders from Carrington, he chose to follow the Indian decoys north rather than turn west to rescue the wagon train. Fetterman had been garrisoned at nearby Ft Phil Kearny, one of three posts along the Bozeman Trail in present-day Wyoming. Lambert, Joseph. On the bitterly cold morning of December 21, about 2,000 Natives concealed themselves along the road just north of Fort Phil Kearney. The dispatch from Colonel Henry B. Carrington at Fort Phil Kearny stated that three officers, 92 men, and two citizens had been massacred four days earlier near the fort. Fort Phil Kearny was one the reasons for this trip. Some historians interpreted that as a tribute to his bravery in standing alone against several armed enemies. [34], United States Army Stands In Timber, John and Margot Liberty: Papers relating to Talks and Councils held with the Indians in Dakota and Montana Territories in the Years 1866-1869. Eyewitness testimonies and historians stated that Red Cloud was present in the battle, although his role during the fighting is unknown. The orders were given in front of Lieutenant Grummond's house, next the colonel's, and those who were present heard them repeated with distinctness and special urgency. Carrington left Fort Kearny on January 23 with his wife and the other women and children, including the pregnant wife of the deceased Lieutenant Grummond. The battlefield was examined briefly and the bodies of soldiers removed quickly. Another four soldiers had been wounded after they pursued another Indian decoy into an ambush. Carrington had 700 soldiers and 300 civilians in his command. Previous Next (For a day tour covering all historic sites, including the Brinton Museum, consider starting your tour early in the cool of the day at Fort Phil Kearny) TO GET TO FORT PHIL KEARNY FROM LAZY R: Take I-90 headed east for approximately 36 miles to Exit 44. Even if he had taken the shortest route, Ten Eyck was highly unlikely to have arrived in time to assist Fetterman. The tragic events associated with Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Wagon Box Fight form one of the most dramatic chapters in the history of the Indian Wars.For two bloody years from 1866 to 1868, the Sioux Indians, bitter and opposing the invasion of their hunting grounds by prospectors bound over the Bozeman Trail to the Montana goldfields, fought back viciously. Sheltered by the smooth Sullivant Hills that slide into Lodge Trail Ridge, this innocuous fold of land was the scene of … [4] Tracking the dwindling herds of buffalo, the three tribes soon ignored the treaty boundaries agreed upon and invaded Crow land. University of New Mexico Press (July 16, 2010). Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site includes a visitor's center with exhibits, videos, a bookstore, and self-guided tours of the fort grounds and outlying sites. Historian Stephen Ambrose said Indian dead totaled 10 Lakota, two Cheyenne, and one Arapaho, some of them killed by 'friendly' arrow fire rather than soldier's bullets. Directed by Tonino Valerii (MY NAME IS NOBODY). [citation needed] Yet, at some point, Grummond led his cavalry far in advance of Fetterman, chasing the Indian decoys in direct violation of his orders. Universal Studios - 100 Universal City Plaza, Universal City, California, USA. When attacked, the cavalry retreated uphill and southward, toward Fetterman and Fort Kearny. 66–67 and Van de Logt, Mark, "New Perspectives on the Fetterman Fight", https://archive.org/details/historyofwyoming00hudsrich, List of battles won by Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Find a grave memorial of US Soldiers who died at Fort Kearny, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fetterman_Fight&oldid=994505578, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Company C: Second Lieutenant George W. Grummond†, Sergeant James Bakerâ€, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 01:54. Carrington ordered a relief party composed of 49 infantrymen of the 18th Infantry and 27 mounted troopers of the 2nd Cavalry under the command of Captain James Powell. Grummond and the cavalry apparently remained in good order, leading their horses and presumably firing at the Indians all around them. The bodies of Fetterman and his soldiers were found more than half a mile beyond the summit of the ridge. Leading the cavalrymen was Lieutenant Horatio S. Bingham. The mutilated bodies of Bingham and a sergeant were found several hours later. Both the Fetterman Massacre and Wagon Box Fight lie within a few miles of one another just off I-90 in the vicinity of Story, Wyoming. Meanwhile, Carrington dispatched another group of 42 soldiers to join Ten Eyck. “Massacre” references the 1866 Indian battle with a company of US troops under Captain William Fetterman on the Wyoming plains near Fort Phil Kearny (spelled Kearney by the author). However, the Indians saw through it and instead stampeded a herd of the cattle on the bank of the Powder River opposite Fetterman's intended trap. Lieutenant Wands was also instructed to repeat them. His pickets on Pilot Hill signaled that an Army wood train was being attacked 4 miles west of the fort. Pilot Hill, Fort Phil Kearny, WY The fort, known to the Indians as the "hated post on the Little Piney", played an important role in Red Cloud's War. She said these orders were given twice, the second time by Carrington from the sentry walk after ordering the soldiers to halt as they left the front gate of the fort. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. [7]:174–177, About noon in the fort, Carrington and his men heard heavy firing to their north. Carrington reemphasized to his soldiers his policy of caution until reinforcements and additional horses and supplies arrived from Fort Laramie. [31], Calitri also suggests controversy about Grummond. Reaching the top, about 12:45 pm, his men and he saw a very large force of Indians in the Peno Creek valley below. At the time, it was the worst military disaster ever suffered by the US Army on the Great Plains. See, for example, discussions of Indian tactics in Ambrose, pp. According to a Cheyenne informant named White Elk, who was interviewed as he walked the battlefield 48 years after the event, the Indians had chosen 10 warriors as decoys to tempt Fetterman into the ambush: two Arapaho, two Cheyenne, and two from each of the three Lakota bands present: the Oglala, Brulé, and Miniconjou. Counting Fetterman and his men, in less than six months at Fort Kearny, Carrington had lost 96 soldiers and 58 civilians. BY B.F. McCUNE AND LOUIS HART Less than seven days after that speech, the Sioux went to Fort Phil Kearny, the new sentinel of the Oregon Trail. Fetterman may have shot himself just before American Horse cut his throat. The tour marks the archaeological remains of the fort's buildings. The Indians covered him with a buffalo hide. Colonel Henry Carrington runs a severe command but finds his authority challenged by the more likeable Captain William Fetterman. Fetterman said, "This Indian war has become a hand-to-hand fight requiring the utmost caution." About 50 Indians appeared near Fort Kearny, but Carrington dispersed them with a few cannon shots. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. When he returned to Red Cloud the fourth time, he declared that in his vision he had 100 blue-coat soldiers in each hand — too many to hold. [17][18] Indian armies rarely had a single leader or a command structure with Red Cloud as one of those who planned much of the attack,[18] but Hump (High Backbone), a Miniconjou, was the prominent leader in the fighting. He established three forts along the trail, including his headquarters at Fort Phil Kearny, near present-day Buffalo, Wyoming. More than four decades later, Frances Carrington, Henry’s second wife, repeated the boast attributed to Fetterman almost verbatim in her 1910 book My Army Life: A Soldier’s Wife at Fort Phil Kearny. Shortly after Fetterman arrived at Fort Kearny, Carrington gave the captain permission to attempt a night ambush. Their bodies were found in a small circle, huddled together for defense. By claiming seniority as a brevet lieutenant colonel, Fetterman asked for and was given command of the relief party. The Fetterman Fight, also known as the Fetterman Massacre or the Battle of the Hundred-in-the-Hands or the Battle of a Hundred Slain, was a battle during Red Cloud's War on December 21, 1866, between a confederation of the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and a detachment of the United States Army, based at Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming. 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