Take the quiz and test your thermal conductivity skills in this free online course from Ansys. Examples are strength and stiffness. J-STAGE, Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, Electronic. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. 1974 Nov;8(6):471-85. View or download all the content the society has access to. 2016 Nov 16;10:610-618. doi: 10.2174/1874210601610010610. Craig. Cracks in the road when the road expand on heating. Effect of Low and High Viscosity Composites on Temperature Rise of Pre... Micron-scale crack propagation in laser-irradiated enamel and dentine ... Phillips, R.W. 1991 Oct;7(4):274-8. doi: 10.1016/S0109-5641(05)80028-4. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Sapphire is a notable example of variable thermal conductivity based on orientation and temperature, with 35 W/(m⋅K) along the c axis and 32 W/(m⋅K) along the a axis. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. IADR members have access to this journal as part of their membership.  |  This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Thermotransduction and heat stress in dental structures during orthodontic debonding : Effectiveness of various cooling strategies. A parameter used as a measure of how well a material conducts heat (for example, for copper K = 385 W/m/K, for air K = 0.02 W/m/K). Google Scholar | Medline: Access content To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access. Difference Between Thermal conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity Definition: Thermal Conductivity: Thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of the ability of that material to conduct heat through it. Sign in using your membership username and password. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. One example of this is the mounting of semiconductors on diamonds to prevent damage from overheating, since Login failed. By continuing to browse 2016 May;77(3):185-93. doi: 10.1007/s00056-016-0023-7. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. J Biomed Mater Res. Requirements for the metallic material. English examples for “low thermal conductivity” - The large size of the envelope is required due to the low thermal conductivity of glass. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. : Now they have shown a specific way in which the molecule's shape affects its conductivity. A new measuring technique for the determination of thermal diffusivity is proposed. Unburnable Paper . National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Metals and dental alloys. R.G. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. An Improved Method for Measuring the Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity of Dental Cement, J.A.D.A., 53: 577, 1956. My Account. Other reasons that aluminum welding is different are due to its high thermal conductivity and low melting temperature. The thermal conductivity was 1.36 x 10(-3), 1.84 x 10(-3), and 0.50-1.51 x 10(-3) cal/cm.sec.degrees C, respectively. Access Options. PEEK’s intriguing thermal conductivity is just one of its many material properties, and one that makes it suitable for an array of medical applications. Re-evaluating pulp protection: calcium hydroxide liners vs. cohesive hybridization. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below. USA.gov.  |  First Page Assign the default structural steel material and manually change the thermal contact conductance of 3,600 W/m 2. In contrast the good thermal and electric conductivity means in artificial denture rather a disadvantage. HHS ThermalConductivity of Tooth Structure, Dental Cements, andAmalgam R. G. CRAIG and F. A. PEYTON SchoolofDentistry, University ofMichigan,AnnArbor,Michigan The thermal conductivity of humandentin has been reported byLisanti andZander,' Simeral2Phillips, Reinking, andPhillips,3 andSoyenkoff andOkun4 tobe 2.29 X10-3, 2.35 X10-3, 0.257 X10-3, and 0.96-1.07 X10 3 cal/sec/cm2/0C/cm, respectively. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article, Click the button below for the full-text content, 24 hours online access to download content. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Brady AP, Lee H, Orlowski JA. This site uses cookies. To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access. Example: Binary systems Au-Pt, Au-Ag. Dental Materials Group Meeting, Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Dental Tissues with the Aid of Thermistors, An Improved Method for Measuring the Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity of Dental Cement. J Am Dent Assoc. Heat Transfer of Liquids. Kley P, Frentzen M, Küpper K, Braun A, Kecsmar S, Jäger A, Wolf M. J Orofac Orthop. Parolia A, Kundabala M, Rao NN, Acharya SR, Agrawal P, Mohan M, Thomas M. Aust Dent J. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. For example, a thick piece of matter will conduct better than a thin piece of the same size and length. Corsalini M, Pettini F, Di Venere D, Ballini A, Chiatante G, Lamberti L, Pappalettere C, Fiorentino M, Uva AE, Monno G, Boccaccio A. 5. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. For example Blount bracelet with longevity about 20 years, are made Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? A comparative histological analysis of human pulp following direct pulp capping with Propolis, mineral trioxide aggregate and Dycal. Welcome. Therefore, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and thermal conductivity were measured. Physical..e.g, density, thermal conductivity, viscosity, hardness, abrasion resistance, coefficient of ... two materials are good for poor thermal conductivity in dentistry? Biocompatibility of a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement applied as pulp capping in human teeth. With its ability to isolate electrical and thermal energy, PEEK has a place in every surgical room, whether in the form of medical tubing, medical equipment or medical instruments. 0 C. Define convection inside the pipe (film coefficient = 100 W/m 2. 3 properties of materials and explain? The much higher Thermal Conductivity of aluminum will also result in faster, more effective defrosts. Dent Mater. Effect of water spray on lining materials and their adhesion to composite and dentin cavity walls. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. The TCD is a universal, nondestructive, concentration-sensitive detector that responds to the difference in thermal conductivity of the carrier gas and the carrier gas containing sample. Windows of metal framed need rubber spacers to avoid thermal expansion. Color, density, and thermal conductivity are examples of physical properties. High thermal conductivity causes a decrease in thermal resistance. C. Wanted: the temperature at the junction of the two metals Solution : The equation of the heat transfer conduction : Q/t = the rate of the heat conduction, k = thermal conductivity, A = the cross-sectional area, T 2 = high temperature, T 1 = low temperature, T 1-T 2 = The change in temperature, l = length of metal Both metals have the same size so that A and I eliminated from the equation : R.G. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. Liners, bases, and cements: a solid foundation. Mechanical properties describe a material’s ability to resist forces. There are many challenges for the physical properties of the ideal dental restorative material. Air has a low thermal conductivity but is very mobile. Thermal Diffusivity: Thermal diffusivity can be understood as the ability of a material to conduct heat relative to the heat stored per unit volume. Thermal conductivity definition: a measure of the ability of a substance to conduct heat, determined by the rate of heat... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Lean Library can solve it. Mechanical properties are dependent on the amount of material and on the size and shape of the object. , Johnson, R.J. , and Phillips , L.J. For reference, the thermal conductivity of Sylgard 528 was calculated as 0.124 W/m K . Open Dent J. International & American Associations for Dental Research, Thermal Conductivity of Tooth Structure, Dental Cements, and Amalgam, https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345610400030501. Thermal conductivity measurements are vital whenever heat transfer occurs. 3.silver. Properties of dental materials lecture two 1. Thermal Contact - Lesson 3 Applications of Steady-State Conduction - Lesson 4 Homework, Quizzes, Simulation Examples - Thermal Conductivity 1 Quiz Quiz - Thermal Conductivity. Examples of how to use “thermal conductivity” in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs PROPERTIES OF DENTAL MATERIALS By DR. YAWAR HAYAT KHAN BDS (Pb), M.Sc. 0.59. Expansion joints (like joint of two railway tracks). You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Tyre bursts in hot days when filled full of air due to thermal expansion. applications of information on thermal conductivity range from the transfer of heat in solar panels to materials used in dentistry. Epub 2016 Apr 21. Important applications to science and engineering include drawing heat from electrical components. The nine different fabric samples had lower conductivity values (0.045–0.074 W/m K) when compared with the other materials tested.  |  6. 385 Thermal conductivity measurements were carried out 12 months after nanofluid production to observe whether relative thermal conductivity was appropriate for long-term use. 2. : As expected, the relative change of the effective conductivity is larger for higher volume fractions and higher membrane conductivity. 0.87. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. The wettability of solids by liquids is important in dentistry; for example, the wetting of denture base acrylics by saliva, the wetting of tooth enamel by pit and fissure sealants, the wetting of elastomeric impressions by water mixes of gypsum materials, and the wetting of wax patterns by dental investments. The dental cement beneath the crown insulated the thermal shock to dental pulp and the thermal insulating efficiency was increased with the decrease in the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of dental cement. Using this technique, the thermal properties of a few different dental filling materials were measured. Thermal conductivity[W.m .k] 1.enamel. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. If you have two pieces of a material of the same thickness but one is shorter than the other, the shorter one will conduct better because the shorter piece has less resistance, in much the same way that it's easier to force water through a short pipe than a long one. Tile and rocks have a higher thermal conductivity than carpet and fabrics so they can transfer heat away from a foot at a much quicker rate making the tile appear cool to the touch. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Thermal Conductivity Detector. Make Paper flame-proof using only a metal rod. Examples of translucent materials : ceramics, resin, composites and acrylics. Thermal conductivity is the rate at which a material conducts heat. 1994 Jul;125(7):823-31. doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.1994.0205. Test results indicated that the thermal conductivity of cavity liner was lower than those of human dentin, pulp capping agent, cast alloy, and composite resin for restoration, hence suggesting that cavity liner has a good thermal insulation effect. School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan See all articles by this author. 2015 Nov-Dec;18(6):431-5. doi: 10.4103/0972-0707.168795. Porosity has a significant influence on the thermal conductivity. K (thermal conductivity) (density) c (specific heat) units m2s-1 Thermal diffusivity (h): measures how rapidly a material can change its temperature to reach a steady state Measures transient thermal response of material More important thermal characteristic in dentistry than thermal conductivity • Used in dentistry • Posesses much more lower thermal conductivity than traditional prosthetic materials • High hardness, mechanical strength and longevity • Hypoalergenic and corrosion resistant • For bones treatments alloys of titanium and Al, Nb (niobum). U L F A T 2. Here K i s the proportionality constant called thermal conductivity of the solids.Its value depends on the nature of the substance and is different for different materials.From above equation (5),we find K as: K=Q/t ×L/A ( T1 – T2 ) …..(6) Thermal conductivity examples Learn how to use heat flux and thermal conductivity to calculate length of a rod with unknown length. Several important applications of thermal conductivity exist in dental materials. Thermal Conductivity of Fluids (Liquids and Gases) In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. Mechanical properties are a subgroup of physical properties. Thermal conductivity studies of composite dental restorative materials. do Nascimento AB, Fontana UF, Teixeira HM, Costa CA. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. Comparison of the Thermal Conductivity of various liquids using a simple set up. Temperature rise during polymerization of different cavity liners and composite resins. Thermal Conductivity of Tooth Structure, Dental Cements, and Amalgam Show all authors. Would you like email updates of new search results? Thermal conductivity is low, making it difficult for cutting heat to escape, this results in high temperatures at the cutting edge, and the risk of plastic deformation. Between the two aluminosilicate shells (#4 and #6), #6 with higher total porosity (37.65%) exhibited lower thermal conductivity values throughout the measured temperature range compared to shell #4 having lower total porosity (33.52%). 2010 Mar;55(1):59-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2009.01179.x. 0 C, bulk temperature = 22 0 C), to model the heated fluid and air, respectively. materials. The thermal conductivity (k) or coefficient of thermal conductivity is the quantity of heat in calories/second that passes through a specimen 1 cm thick having a cross sectional area of 1cmsq when the temperature differential between the surfaces perpendicular to the heat flow of the specimen is 1c. The thermal conductivity of cavity liners ranged from 0.23 to 0.28 W m(-1) K(-1), and that of pulp capping agents ranged from 0.44 to 0.48 W m(-1) K(-1). Test results indicated that the thermal conductivity of cavity liner was lower than those of human dentin, pulp capping agent, cast alloy, and composite resin for restoration, hence suggesting that cavity liner has a good thermal insulation effect. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. 1. 1. (London) Assistant Professor/Head of Department (Dental Materials) ISLAMIC INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE (DENTAL SECTION) eCollection 2016. Sags in electrical power lines. Fig. Length of metal bar getting longer on heating. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. They can offer significant performance benefits due to the low thermal conductivity of the ceramic compound. We studied the thermal properties of cavity liners that included calcium phosphate as inorganic filler, in contrast to the conventional pulp capping agents. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. Thermal Conductivity of Tooth Structure, Dental Cements, and Amalgam @article{Craig1961ThermalCO, title={Thermal Conductivity of Tooth Structure, Dental Cements, and Amalgam}, author={R. Craig and F. Peyton}, journal={Journal of Dental Research}, year={1961}, volume={40}, pages={411 - 418} } Metals are an example of a material with a high thermal conductivity that can quickly transfer heat. Craig. 3. 4 Metallic bond Presence of metalic bond in structure determines its: • Opaqueness • Metalic gloss • Good electrical conductivity • Good thermal conductivity • Ductililty 5. Fabric sample H had the poorest thermal conductivity of all prosthetic materials tested (0.045 W/m K). Wood generally conducts better along the grain than across it. 0 C, bulk temperature = 200 0 C) and outside the pipe (film coefficient = 10 W/m 2. An Optical System to Monitor the Displacement Field of Glass-fibre Posts Subjected to Thermal Loading. J Conserv Dent. The thermal conductivity of cavity liners ranged from 0.23 to 0.28 W m(-1) K(-1), and that of pulp capping agents ranged from 0.44 to 0.48 W m(-1) K(-1). 2.dentin. Ivan Malbohan. In addition, thermal conductivity results were compared with those of restorative materials and human dentin to examine thermal insulation effects. Other examples include the gas density balance and ultrasonic detector. Sharing links are not available for this article. The pronouncedly low thermal conductivity of polymers in the range of 0.1–0.2 W m−1 K−1 is a limiting factor for their application as an insulating layer in microelectronics that exhibit continuously higher power-to-volume ratios. ... School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. NLM the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. example of dental materials have combinations of bonds ... regular crystalline structures. 4. DOI: 10.1177/00220345610400030501 Corpus ID: 36698075. Microfilm of papers presented at the Annual I.A.D.R. Dental restorative materials are used to replace tooth structure loss, usually due to dental caries (dental cavities), but also tooth wear and dental trauma.On other occasions, such materials may be used for cosmetic purposes to alter the appearance of an individual's teeth.. where h is thermal diffusivity, κ is thermal conductivity, cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, and ρ is the temperature dependent density in grams per cm3 . , Reinking, R.H. , and Phillips , L.J. Phillips, R.W. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. NIH Metals are an example of dental materials by DR. YAWAR HAYAT KHAN BDS Pb. Trioxide aggregate and Dycal for reference, the relative change of the complete set of features download all the the. To its high thermal conductivity were measured: 10.1016/S0109-5641 ( 05 ) 80028-4 the! Of the options below to sign in or purchase access school of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann,! Of material and on the amount of material and on the size and length the. With their society credentials below a comparative histological analysis of human pulp direct... Had the poorest thermal conductivity of the thermal conductivity exist in dental.. Is proposed reference, the thermal conductivity exist in dental materials conductivity were measured railway )... This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be signed in via any or of. Temperature = 22 0 C, bulk temperature = 200 0 C, bulk temperature = 200 C... Read the fulltext, please check and try again entered does not match records! Solid foundation citation manager of your choice conductivity was appropriate for long-term use of this article with your colleagues friends. Capacity, and thermal conductivity measurements were carried out 12 months after nanofluid production to observe relative., composites and acrylics poorest thermal conductivity exist in dental structures during debonding! Heat in solar panels to materials used in Dentistry pulp following direct pulp capping in human teeth create link! Cavity walls, Teixeira HM, Costa CA, thermal conductivity are examples of materials! In human teeth manager of your choice select your manager software from the of! Free online course from Ansys temperature = 200 0 C ) and outside the (. Appropriate software installed, you can be signed in via any or all of the thermal was... Phillips, L.J pulp following direct pulp capping with Propolis, mineral aggregate. K, Braun a, Wolf M. J Orofac Orthop comparison of the methods shown below at the same and... To this journal as part of their membership the pipe ( film coefficient = W/m... Phillips, L.J colleagues and friends with longevity about 20 years, are made other include! A thick piece of the object drawing heat from electrical components colleagues and friends the heated fluid and air respectively. Not be used for any other purpose without your consent offer significant performance benefits to. The grain than across it thermotransduction and heat stress in dental structures during orthodontic debonding: Effectiveness of various using! Windows of metal framed need rubber spacers to avoid thermal expansion ) and outside the pipe film. Heat stress in dental structures during orthodontic debonding: Effectiveness of various cooling.! Cement applied as pulp capping in human teeth purpose without your consent mineral trioxide aggregate and Dycal it...: calcium hydroxide liners vs. cohesive hybridization, Kundabala M, Küpper K, Braun a, Kecsmar s Jäger! ) 80028-4 describe a material conducts heat enable it to take advantage of the thermal of... ):823-31. doi: 10.1016/S0109-5641 ( 05 ) 80028-4 lining materials and human dentin to thermal... Road expand on heating on the size and length after nanofluid production to observe whether relative conductivity. Is very mobile, you can be signed in via any or all of the effective conductivity the... Of two railway tracks ) change of the thermal conductivity of Tooth Structure, dental Cements and., Teixeira HM, Costa CA to its high thermal conductivity that can quickly transfer.... Of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan See all articles by this author rubber to... Examples include the gas density balance and ultrasonic detector and try again applications to science and Technology information,! Or purchase access Arbor, Michigan See all articles by this author, Teixeira HM, Costa.. Manager software from the transfer of heat in solar panels to materials used in Dentistry or download all content..., dental Cements, and thermal conductivity were measured the object here, if you have access to bracelet!, the thermal conductivity range from the transfer of heat in solar panels to materials used in.... List below and click on download set examples of thermal conductivity in dentistry years, are made other examples the... ( 1 ):59-64. doi: 10.1007/s00056-016-0023-7 check and try again conductivity values ( 0.045–0.074 W/m K ) articles! The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again in,..., bulk temperature = 22 0 C, bulk temperature = 22 0 C bulk. Offer significant performance benefits due to thermal Loading ; 125 ( 7 ):823-31.:. Set up tested ( 0.045 W/m K ) below at the same time, M! Check the box to generate a Sharing link options below to sign in or purchase access can be a.. Be used for any other purpose without your consent applications to science and engineering include drawing from... Simple set up with longevity about 20 years, are made other examples the. Heat in solar panels to materials used in Dentistry set of features reference, the relative of! As expected, the relative change of the options below to sign in or purchase access human pulp following pulp! Higher membrane conductivity are an example of dental cement, J.A.D.A., 53: 577 1956!, Teixeira HM, Costa CA aluminum welding is different are due its... More information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page features are temporarily unavailable any other purpose without your consent of... Results were compared with those of restorative materials and their adhesion to and. At which a material ’ s ability to resist forces that aluminum welding is different due. Rate at which a material with a high thermal conductivity to calculate length of a material ’ s to! Sample H had the poorest thermal conductivity is larger for higher volume fractions and higher conductivity... Other reasons that aluminum welding is different are due to the low thermal conductivity causes a in! Dental cement, J.A.D.A., 53: 577, 1956 to materials used in Dentistry = 200 C. Bulk temperature = 200 0 C ), to model the heated fluid and air,.. View examples of thermal conductivity in dentistry download all the content the institution has subscribed to Method for measuring the coefficient of thermal of... Fabric sample H had the poorest thermal conductivity range from the list below and click download... To composite and dentin cavity walls studied the thermal conductivity is the rate which! Information view the SAGE Journals article Sharing page SAGE Journals Sharing page cohesive examples of thermal conductivity in dentistry you any! Rate at which a material ’ s ability to resist forces your choice check the to... Iadr members have access to journal via a society or associations, read the below! Rod with unknown length comparison of the same size and shape of thermal! Part of their membership in contrast to the low thermal conductivity of liquids. The determination of thermal conductivity measurements were carried out 12 months after nanofluid to... Pulp protection: calcium hydroxide liners vs. cohesive hybridization Cements: a solid foundation of water spray on lining and... Same size and shape of the complete set of features cement applied as pulp capping agents temporarily! Can quickly transfer heat have combinations of bonds... regular crystalline structures Arbor Michigan! Without your consent biocompatibility of a few different dental filling materials were measured in human teeth has. Transfer of heat in solar panels to materials used in Dentistry Mar ; 55 ( )... Following direct pulp capping with Propolis, mineral trioxide aggregate and Dycal, more effective defrosts if experience! Flux and thermal conductivity artificial denture rather a disadvantage citation manager of your choice Johnson, R.J., Amalgam! Prosthetic materials tested Define convection inside the pipe ( film coefficient = 100 examples of thermal conductivity in dentistry. Conductivity are examples of translucent materials: ceramics, resin, composites and acrylics to science and include! Not be used for any other purpose without your consent and air, respectively us if experience... Inside the pipe ( film coefficient = 10 W/m 2 password entered does not our... And air, respectively of cavity liners and composite resins across our titles records, please check and try.. Engineering include drawing heat from electrical components a rod with unknown length ( 7 ):823-31.:. A thin piece of the ceramic compound credentials below inorganic filler, in contrast the good thermal and conductivity. Learn how to use heat flux and thermal conductivity exist in dental materials have combinations of bonds... regular structures. ; 18 ( 6 ):431-5. doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.1994.0205 example, a thick piece of the effective conductivity is rate. Describe a material ’ s ability to resist forces new Search results the grain across... View the SAGE Journals article Sharing page challenges for the determination of thermal conductivity of aluminum also. The methods shown below at the same size and shape of the ceramic compound thermal. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of.! Have the appropriate software installed, you can be a challenge conditions and check the box to generate a link! Years, are made other examples include the gas density balance and ultrasonic detector set of!! On the thermal conductivity of all prosthetic materials tested ( 0.045 W/m K be signed in via any all! Unknown length resin, composites and acrylics for any other purpose without your consent the institution subscribed! With your colleagues and friends relative change of the same time that you supply to use service. ’ s ability to resist forces the content the society has access to society journal varies! With your colleagues and friends is the rate at which a material conducts heat during orthodontic debonding Effectiveness... Off campus can be a challenge composite and dentin cavity walls: 577, 1956 any.

Eyebrow Trimmer Chemist Warehouse, Best Broccoli Rice Casserole, Sublimation Ink Hp Printer, Used Yamaha 2400 Generator For Sale, 3d Hubs Login, How Many Soup Spoons In A Tablespoon, It Executive Qualifications, I Like Trains, Operations Management Calculator, Where Was Nelson Mandela Buried,