Broadbent provides a social scientist's account of recent efforts to stabilize the remaining structures at East Base on Stonington Island along the Antarctic Peninsula where the United States Antarctic Service conducted scientific work and exploration from 1939 to 1940 under Byrd's direction. According to Hollow Earth theorists, Byrd met ancient race underground in the… [18] Balchen claimed that Bennett had confessed to him months after the flight that Byrd and he had not reached the pole. In April 1914, he transferred to the armored cruiser USS Washington and served in Mexican waters in June following the American intervention in April. Biographie. He had found his life's work, or at least the means that would lead to life as an explorer. Denied endorsement by the navy, Byrd was strictly on his own. Do not use line breaks or cariage returns. 1929. Byrd joined a flight to the South Pole and navigated with his old sun compass, but it was just a gesture. [3] It was the largest Antarctic expedition to date and was expected to last 6–8 months. But Byrd was filled with enthusiasm and soon planned another attempt to be first at the North Pole by air. It was initially spun as a “scientific operation,” although Byrd himself said in plain langua… Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, U.S.N, Retired, was in command of this flight, navigated the airplane, made the mandatory preparations for the flight, and through his untiring energy, superior leadership, and excellent judgment the flight was brought to a successful conclusion. Byrd was already planning his next ventures: a transatlantic flight and a try for the South Pole. Report of the Adjutant General of Rhode Island. Admiral Richard E. Byrd Archive. Lieutenant (later Admiral) Richard E. Byrd reputedly was the first man (along with crew member Floyd Bennett) to fly over the North Pole on May 9, 1926. Even as he was raising huge amounts of money from private sources and insisting on the personal command of his expeditions, Byrd always clothed his work with national purpose. This assignment brought Byrd into contact with high-ranking officials and dignitaries, including then Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Roosevelt. Byrd's Fairchild FC-2W2, NX8006, Stars And Stripes, is on display at the Virginia Aviation Museum located on the north side of the airport, on loan from the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. Other New Deal programs planned the economies of massive regions such as the Tennessee Valley or resettled people from unproductive, high plains homesteads and Georgia dirt farms. Byrd was one of only four American military officers in history entitled to wear a medal with his own image on it. He was a descendant of one of the First Families of Virginia. Byrd spent only one week in the Antarctic, and started his return to the United States on February 3, 1956. Byrd organized complex expeditions that integrated all the latest technologies, and he raised money from wealthy investors, just as the Virginia Company of London had done in 1607. But as a concluding statement to themes explored throughout preceding essays, this article also provides the opportunity to examine the emerging role of the United States federal government in Antarctic science under the guise of protecting national interests in a worldwide competition for natural resources. Byrd was posthumously eligible for the Antarctic Service Medal, established in 1960, for his participation in the Antarctic expeditions Operation Highjump (1946 to 1947) and Operation Deep Freeze (1955 to 1956). And finally, just as Byrd's contributions to science and exploration assumed national significance amid international tensions leading toward World War II and throughout the Cold War following it, so did the Virginia economy come to depend increasingly upon national defense at this same time. Admiral Richard Byrd, rightly or wrongly is now associated with the hollow earth concept because of some comments that were allegedly made and because of a diary that has been disputed. The 1920s was marked by adulation of national heroes in various fields—aviator Charles Lindbergh, home run king Babe Ruth, and Grand Slam golfer Robert Tyre Jones, Jr. Another hero of the 1920s was Richard Evelyn Byrd, a scion of one of Virginia's most famous families. The others were Admiral George Dewey, General John J. Pershing, and Admiral William T. Sampson. [citation needed], Once again, Byrd named Floyd Bennett as his chief pilot, with Norwegian Bernt Balchen], Bert Acosta, and Lieutenant George Noville as other crewmembers. Congress passed a special act on December 21, 1926, promoting him to the rank of commander and awarding both Floyd Bennett and him the Medal of Honor. Byrd attended the University of Virginia before financial circumstances inspired his transfer and graduation from the United States Naval Academy.He learned to fly in World War I during his tour with the United States Navy.He developed a passion for flight, and pioneered many techniques for navigating airplanes over the open ocean including drift indicators and bubble sextants. As the plane was being repaired, Charles Lindbergh won the prize by completing his historic flight on May 21, 1927. [29], After their return to the United States, an elaborate dinner in their honor was held in New York City on July 19. On March 31, 1934, during a regularly scheduled broadcast, Admiral Byrd was awarded the CBS Medal for Distinguished Contribution to Radio. Feb 8, 2018 - Explore PROPORI's board "RICHARD E BYRD" on Pinterest. In 1927, the Boy Scouts of America made Byrd an Honorary Scout, a new category of scout created that same year. MacMillan, a sailor at heart, discounted the airplane for Arctic work, and the polar flight never materialized. In recognition of his service during World War II, Byrd was twice awarded the Legion of Merit.[38]. For the two decades or so left to Byrd, his name remained synonymous with the Antarctic, but his later role in massive navy-led expeditions was as a figurehead. May 9, 1926 They had difficulty gaining enough altitude, and they had to dump empty gas tanks, as well as their emergency supplies, to achieve the altitude of the Polar Plateau, but they were ultimately successful.[32]. Men who accomplish much-- especially by working in that liminal zone between the necessary repressions of military discipline and the boundless ambitions of personal achievement-- often become the target of criticism. He was assigned state membership number 605 and national membership number 50430. Ancient Civilizations/ Ancient Civilizations: The Theories of Atlantis and Lemuria Lemuria The continent of Lemuria, though largely discounted by the theory of plate tectonics and the existence of other sunken continents still visible on the silty bottom of many oceans, lives on in people’s dreams. Their every move was followed by millions of Americans; their achievements marked by huge national celebrations, of which the epitome was the ticker-tape parade down Broadway in New York City. The interview appeared in the Wednesday, March 5, 1947, edition of the Chilean newspaper El Mercurio, and read in part: Admiral Richard E. Byrd warned today that the United States should adopt measures of protection against the possibility of an invasion of the country by hostile planes coming from the polar regions. [2] He is also known for discovering Mount Sidley, the largest dormant volcano in Antarctica. Set to none to not display alert. He is, probably, the only individual to receive the Medal of Honor, Navy Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross, and the Silver Life Saving Medal. The admiral explained that he was not trying to scare anyone, but the cruel reality is that in case of a new war, the United States could be attacked by planes flying over one or both poles. The performance of duty of Rear Admiral Byrd was at all times in keeping with the highest traditions and reflected credit upon himself and the United States Naval Service. For this reason, Byrd's own personality remains an enigma, and fathoming its depths will challenge any biographer. Some scholars will later question the validity of Byrd's claim. The international news media, employing radio, television, and a small army of reporters and commentators, had come to shape, if not determine, perspectives on global politics. Byrd, along with pilot Bernt Balchen, co-pilot/radioman Harold June, and photographer Ashley McKinley, flew the Floyd Bennett to the South Pole and back in 18 hours, 41 minutes. [11] He then commanded naval air forces at Naval Air Station Halifax in Nova Scotia, Canada, from July 1918 until the armistice in November. At age thirty-six in 1924, Byrd was thinking of leaving the navy. Jan 31, 2016 - L'extraordinaire découverte de l'amiral Byrd The undertaking was no lark. Here was his opportunity to strike out on his own not only to prove the worth of aircraft in surveying unknown lands but also to fulfill the lust for adventure fired in him as a young boy on his trip to the Philippines. The more he pushed the possibilities for personal achievement in a rigidly hierarchical organization such as the navy and the more he moved up the ranks by congressional action and public acclaim, the more he garnered the bitter gall of less successful colleagues. Although Eugene Rodgers, Lisle Rose, and Robert Matuozzi address this issue—and disagree about it—it is not the intention of the papers herein to debate it. Noté /5. He must have learned something of this tendency as a boy raised in a small Shenandoah Valley community. This distinction was given to "American citizens whose achievements in outdoor activity, exploration, and worthwhile adventure are of such an exceptional character as to capture the imagination of boys ...".[47]. He insisted on sharing the glory of exploration, and on the occasion of returning from the first Antarctic expedition, he insisted that if Congress were to award him a specially commissioned Byrd Antarctic Expedition Medal, it would have to give one to each of his men as well. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Admiral Byrd is the only person to have three ticker-tape parades in New York City (in 1926, 1927, and 1930) given in his honor. Our Source: "Byrd Gets CBS Award." From Paris to New York he was nonetheless lionized as a conquering hero. As fate would have it, Byrd missed his train to take him to the airship on August 24, 1921. Unlike the 1926 flight, this expedition was honored with the gold medal of the American Geographical Society. Its agrarian past and the catastrophe of the Civil War delayed the industrialization of Virginia until its revolutionizing effects coincided with Byrd's life. Admiral Richard E. Byrd was an early-20th century adventurer and explorer. Byrd's career, as depicted throughout the essays that follow, demonstrated far more than an ability simply to respond to--if not take advantage of--the main tendencies of his time. In 1912 he graduated with an ensign's commission from the U.S. A base camp named "Little America" was constructed on the Ross Ice Shelf, and scientific expeditions by snowshoe, dog sled, snowmobile, and airplane began. Rear Admiral Byrd did much toward the difficult task of organizing the expedition, which was accomplished in one fourth of the time generally necessary for such undertakings. During Byrd's assignment to Dolphin she was commanded by future Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, who served as chief of staff to President Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II. His wise counsel, sound advice and foresight in planning constituted a material contribution to the war effort and to the success of the United States Navy. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant (junior grade) on June 8, 1915. Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia was the first popular uprising in the American colonies. He was very much a man of his times, but these times seemed to pass him by. His legacy was already fixed with his first Antarctic expedition and flight over the South Pole. The total number of personnel involved was over 4,000. As the extent of the geographic unknown contracted, however, vast new fields of inquiry were opening into the operations of nature and life itself through the sciences of physics, geology, chemistry, and biology. This is also a legacy that is still much alive—if not growing in importance-- in an age in which not only shrinking national budgets for science but also a conservative political emphasis on decentralized, smaller government and private initiative place new value upon the kind of partnerships between public and private arenas in which Byrd so very well excelled. (Although Germany was not at war with the United States at this time, Adolf Hitler had been serving as Führer of the German Reich since 1934, and invaded Poland the next year.). Rights and reproductions. Byrd received numerous medals from nongovernmental organizations in honor of his achievements. SSP Whistleblower’s Testimony. All this was in the future, however, as Byrd set out for the North Pole in 1926. He lectured frequently in Virginia's large and small towns about his expeditions. Private funding gave Byrd the freedom he required to best serve both the interests of exploration and his own ego. Not even registered for the $25,000 Orteig Prize, Byrd avowed instead the goals of advancing aviation and proving the airplane's worth for long-distance travel. Although bright, he was not in the top of his class, preferring sports on occasion to academics. The main one was 1939-1941 to east Antarctica in which he names "Little America". Also in 1929, he received the Langley Gold Medal from the Smithsonian Institution. In the postwar world of competition between the U.S. armed services and growing tensions with the Soviet Union, the navy began planning a major expedition to explore and map the Antarctic coastline between the old West and East Bases of the United States Antarctic Service expedition. From 1942 to 1945 he joined the South Pacific Island Base Inspection Board, which had important missions to the Pacific, including surveys of remote islands for airfields. Finally, Thomas Poulter, E.J. His next assignment was to the gunboat USS Dolphin, which also served as the yacht of the Secretary of the Navy. General Orders: Letter Dated August 6, 1926. Byrd reached Paris on the night of 29 June 1927, but clouds prevented his landing and forced him to ditch his plane, the America, on the French coast. On May 9, 1926, Byrd and Navy Chief Aviation Pilot Floyd Bennett attempted a flight over the North Pole in a Fokker F.VIIa/3m tri-motor monoplane named Josephine Ford after the daughter of Ford Motor Company president Edsel Ford, who helped finance the expedition. In one sense this sea change in American life underscored the paradoxes in the life and career of Richard E. Byrd. Sailing home from Greenland, Byrd and his chief pilot, Floyd Bennett, began discussing the next attempt at the North Pole. Medal of Honor recipient Admiral Richard E. Byrd allegedly wrote his encounter with a lost civilization in Antarctica. Born: October 25, 1888, Winchester, Va. [6] While at the Naval Academy, he suffered two injuries to his right ankle (one was by playing football and the other was while dismounting gymnastic rings during a competition). Other recipients include Robert Peary, Roald Amundsen, and Charles Lindbergh. Atlantis Aliens Thule Society Hollow Earth Les Continents Ancient Mysteries Flat Earth Conspiracy Theories Geography. [33] By way of comparison, none of his Annapolis classmates became admirals until 1942, after 30 years of commissioned service. Byrd, of course, sought to master the Antarctic winter night alone. [12] During this expedition, Byrd made the acquaintance of Navy Chief Aviation Pilot Floyd Bennett and Norwegian pilot Bernt Balchen. Byrd and his men spent the month of August 1925 flying around Etah Bay in north Greenland, exploring by air an area the size of Maine and discovering mountains and other previously unmapped geographical features. [3] This expedition is described by Byrd in his autobiography Alone. In 1928, Byrd began his first expedition to the Antarctic involving two ships and three airplanes: Byrd's flagship was the City of New York (a Norwegian sealing ship previously named Samson that had come into fame as a ship some claimed was in the vicinity of the Titanic when the latter was sinking) and the Eleanor Bolling (named after Byrd's mother); a Ford Trimotor airplane called the Floyd Bennett (named after the recently deceased pilot of Byrd's previous expeditions) flown by Dean Smith; a Fairchild FC-2W2, NX8006, built 1928, named Stars And Stripes (now displayed at the Virginia Aviation Museum, on loan from the National Air and Space Museum); and a Fokker Universal monoplane called the Virginia (Byrd's birth state). His papers served as the nucleus for establishment of the BPRC Polar Archival Program in 1990. The first public scientific evidence occurred in 1947 when Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd of the United States Navy flew directly to the North Pole and instead of going over the pole, actually entered the Inner Earth. Matuozzi makes a compelling case that, far more than most public figures and popular heroes of his time, Byrd understood how to exploit his own image to his best advantage but was at the same time manipulated by what the public--wildly enthusiastic about his exploits--thought of him. During this same age, many Americans were growing worried that what would be termed the "military-industrial" complex had become so inextricably linked to central power in Washington, D.C., that democracy itself was in peril. Even though he played no active role in post-World War II naval operations in the Antarctic, as a military officer he understood that the obligations of command distance a leader from the active accomplishments of subordinates. [43] He was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. For distinguishing himself conspicuously by courage and intrepidity at the risk of his life, in demonstrating that it is possible for aircraft to travel in continuous flight from a now inhabited portion of the earth over the North Pole and return. The major area covered was the eastern coastline of Antarctica from 150°E to the Greenwich meridian. [42], Admiral Byrd died in his sleep of a heart ailment at the age of 68 on March 11, 1957, at his home at 7 Brimmer Street in the Beacon Hill neighborhood in Boston. Ancient patriarchs, William Byrd I and II, had not only settled on the colonial fringes of European civilization but also involved themselves deeply in schemes for western development and land speculation. Admiral Byrd was interviewed by Lee van Atta of International News Service aboard the expedition's command ship USS Mount Olympus, in which he discussed the lessons learned from the operation. 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